Nov 24, 2022

Utku Günay Acer, Nokia Bell Labs

The City Answers Your Questions: Sensory Intelligence at the Edge

This talk presents SensiX, a multi-tenant runtime for adaptive model execution with integrated MLOps on edge devices, e.g., a camera, a microphone, or IoT sensors. Through its highly modular componentisation to externalise data operations with clear abstractions and document-centric manifestation for system-wide orchestration, SensiX can serve multiple models efficiently with fine-grained control on edge devices while minimising data operation redundancy, managing data and device heterogeneity, reducing resource contention and removing manual MLOps.

A particular deployment of SensiX is an urban conversational agent. Lingo is a hyper-local conversational agent embedded deeply into the urban infrastructure that provides rich, purposeful, detailed, and in some cases, playful information relevant to a neighbourhood. Lingo provides hyper-local responses to user queries. The responses are computed by SensiX to act as an information source. These queries are served through a covert communication mechanism over Wi-Fi management frames to enable privacy-preserving proxemic interactions.

Nov 8, 2022

Chi-Chun Lee (Jeremy) ,National Tsing Hua University

Affective Speech Modeling and Analysis: Robustness, Generalization, Usability

Speech technology has proliferated into our life, and speech emotion recognition (SER) modules add humaine aspect to the wide-spread use of speech based services. Deep learning techniques play a key role in realizing SER for into-life application. In this talk, we will talk briefly about three main components of using deep models for SER: robustness, generalization and usability, and share several of our recent developments in each of the three main components.

Nov 1, 2022

Mehmet Esat Belviranli, Colorado School of Mines

Multi-Accelerator Execution of Neural Network Inference on Diversely Heterogeneous SoCs

Computing systems are becoming more complex by integrating specialized processing units, i.e., accelerators, that are optimized to perform a specific type of operation. This demand is fueled by the need to run distinct workloads in mobile and autonomous platforms. Such systems often embed diversely heterogeneous System-on-Chips(SoC) where an operation can be executed by more than a single type of accelerator with varying performance, energy, and latency characteristics. A hybrid (i.e., multi-accelerator) execution of popular workloads, such as neural network (NN) inference, collaboratively and concurrently on different types of accelerators in a diversely heterogeneous SoC is a relatively new and unexplored scheme. Multi-accelerator execution has the potential to provide unique benefits for computing systems with limited resources. In this talk, we investigate a framework that enables resource-constraint aware multi-accelerator execution for diversely heterogeneous SoCs. We achieve this by distributing the layers of a NN inference across different accelerators so that the trade-off between performance and energy satisfies system constraints. We further explore improving total throughput by concurrently using different types of accelerators for executing NNs in parallel. Our proposed methodology uniquely considers inter-accelerator transition costs, shared-memory contention and accelerator architectures that embed internal hardware pipelines. We employ empirical performance models and constraint-based optimization problems to determine optimal multi-accelerator execution schedules.

Oct 25, 2022

Erol Şahin, METU-ROMER (Center for Robotics and AI)

Imbuing Collaborative Robotic Manipulators with Human-Robot Interaction Skills

Industrial robots, a shining example of the success of robotics in the manufacturing domain, are developed as manipulators without any support for human-robot interaction (HRI). However, a new generation of manipulators, called Collaborative robots (Cobots), designed with embedded safety features, are being deployed to operate alongside humans. These advances are pushing HRI research, most of which is being conducted on “toy robots that do not do much work,” towards deployment on Cobots. In our two TUBITAK projects, called CIRAK and KALFA, we study how Cobots can be imbued with HRI capabilities in a collaborative assembly task. Based on the observation that manipulation skills of Cobots being (and will remain in the near future) inferior to the skill of workers, we envision Cobots positioning themselves as unskilled coworkers (hence the name CIRAK and KALFA) in which they hand in proper tools and parts to the worker. Within this talk, I will summarize our work towards imbuing HRI skills on Cobots through the use of some animation principles through behaviors such as “breathing” and “gazing”, as well as automatic assembly learning. Finally, I will briefly share the developments about METU-ROMER.

Oct 18, 2022

Mehmet Doğar, University of Leeds

Object Manipulation with Physics-Based Models

I will give an overview of our work on robotic object manipulation. First, I will talk about physics-based planning. This refers to robot motion planners that use predictions about the motion of contacted objects. We have particularly been interested in developing such planners for cluttered scenes, where multiple objects might simultaneously move as a result of robot contact. Second, I will talk about a more conventional grasping-based problem, where a robot must manipulate an object for the application of external forceful operations on it. Imagine a robot holding and moving a wooden board for a human, while the human drills holes into the board and cuts parts of it. I will describe our efforts in developing a planner that addresses the geometric, force stability, and human-comfort constraints for such a system.

Oct 04, 2022

Zeyu Wang, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology

Enhancing the Creative Process in Digital Prototyping

Despite advances in computer-aided design (CAD) systems and video editing software, digital content creation for design, storytelling, and interactive experiences remains a challenging problem. This talk introduces a series of studies, techniques, and systems along three thrusts that engage creators more directly and enhance the user experience in authoring digital content. First, we present a drawing dataset and spatiotemporal analysis that provide insight into how people draw by comparing tracing, freehand drawing, and computer-generated approximations. We found a high degree of similarity in stroke placement and types of strokes used over time, which informs methods for customized stroke treatment and emulating drawing processes. We also propose a deep learning-based technique for line drawing synthesis from animated 3D models, where our learned style space and optimization-based embedding enable the generation of line drawing animations while allowing interactive user control across frames. Second, we demonstrate the importance of utilizing spatial context in the creative process in augmented reality (AR) through two tablet-based interfaces. DistanciAR enables designers to create site-specific AR experiences for remote environments using LiDAR capture and new authoring modes, such as Dollhouse and Peek. PointShopAR integrates point cloud capture and editing in a single AR workflow to help users quickly prototype design ideas in their spatial context. Our user studies show that LiDAR capture and the point cloud representation in these systems can make rapid AR prototyping more accessible and versatile. Last, we introduce two procedural methods to generate time-based media for visual communication and storytelling. AniCode supports authoring and on-the-fly consumption of personalized animations in a network-free environment via a printed code. CHER-Ob generates video flythroughs for storytelling from annotated heterogeneous 2D and 3D data for cultural heritage. Our user studies show that these methods can benefit the video-oriented digital prototyping experience and facilitate the dissemination of creative and cultural ideas.

Sep 27, 2022

Ji-Ung Lee ,UKP Lab, Technical University of Darmstadt

Click here for slides.

Facets of Efficiency in NLP

In recent years model sizes have increased substantially, and so did the cost for training them. This is problematic for two reasons: 1) it excludes organizations that do not have thousands of GPUs at hand for training such models, and 2) it becomes apparent that the hardware will not able to scale along with the growth of the models. Both can be alleviated by improving the efficiency of NLP models. This talk will first provide an overview of where efficiency may be improved within a typical NLP pipeline. We will then have a closer look at methods that improve data efficiency. Finally, we will discuss how we can quantify efficiency using different kinds of metrics.

May 31, 2022

Ulugbek Kamilov, Washington University in St. Louis

Click here for slides.

Computational Imaging: Integrating Physical and Learned Models using Plug-and-Play Methods

Computational imaging is a rapidly growing area that seeks to enhance the capabilities of imaging instruments by viewing imaging as an inverse problem. Plug-and-Play Priors (PnP) is one of the most popular frameworks for solving computational imaging problems through the integration of physical and learned models. PnP leverages high-fidelity physical sensor models and powerful machine learning methods to provide state-of-the-art imaging algorithms. PnP algorithms alternate between minimizing a data-fidelity term to promote data consistency and imposing a learned regularizer in the form of an “artifact-reducing” deep neural network. Recent highly successful applications of PnP algorithms include bio-microscopy, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and joint ptycho-tomography. This talk presents a unified and principled review of PnP by tracing its roots, describing its major variations, summarizing main results, and discussing applications in computational imaging.

May 24, 2022

Nils Reimers, Huggingface &TU Darmstadt

Advances in Neural Search

The advance of large pre-trained transformer models fundamentally changed Information Retrieval, resulting in substantially better search results without the need of large user-interaction data. In this talk, I will give an overview of different neural search techniques, their advantages and disadvantages, open challenges, and how they can successfully be used to improve any search system.

May 12, 2022

Ahmad P. Tafti, University of Southern Maine

Explainable AI in Medical Image Analysis: Lessons Learned in Total Joint Arthroplasty (TJA) Research

Orthopedic surgical procedures, and particularly total knee/hip arthroplasty (TKA/THA), are the most common and fastest growing surgeries in the United States. Almost 1.3 million TJA procedures occur on a yearly basis and more than 7 million Americans are currently living with artificial knee and/or hip joints. The widespread adoption of x-ray radiography and their availability at low cost, make them the principal method in assessing TJA and subtle TJA complications, such as osteolysis, implant loosening or infection over time, enabling surgeons to rule out complications and possible needs for revision surgeries. Rapid yet, with the growing number of TJA patients, the routine clinical and radiograph follow-up remain a daunting task for most orthopedic centers. It becomes an overwhelming amount of work, on a human scale, when we consider a radiologist or surgeon presented with the vast number of medical images daily. Smart computational strategies, such as explainable artificial intelligence and deep learning methods are thus required to analyze arthroplasty radiographs automatically and objectively, enabling both naive and experienced practitioners to perform radiographic follow-up with greater ease and speed, providing them with better explainability and interpretability in AI models. In this talk, we will be discussing the effectiveness of explainable AI methods to advance TJA research. We, together, will explore what explainable AI components do in TJA research and how.

May 10, 2022

Deniz Altınbüken, Google Brain Research

The Tip of the Iceberg: How to make ML for Systems work

Machine Learning has become a powerful tool to improve computer systems and there is a significant amount of research ongoing both in academia and industry to tackle systems problems using Machine Learning. Most work focuses on learning patterns and replacing heuristics with these learned patterns to solve systems problems such as compiler optimization, query optimization, failure detection, indexing, caching. However, solutions that truly improve systems need to maintain the efficiency, availability, reliability, and maintainability of systems while integrating Machine Learning into the system. In this talk, I will cover the key aspects and surprising joys of designing, implementing and deploying ML for Systems solutions based on my experiences of building and deploying these systems at Google.

Apr 26, 2022

Erhan Öztop, Özyeğin University& Osaka University

Mirror Neurons from a Developmental Robotics Perspective

Mirror Neurons have been initially discovered in the ventral premotor cortex of macaque monkeys, which seem to represent action and perception in a common framework: they become active when a monkey executes a grasp action, as well as when the monkey observes another monkey or human perform a similar action. The computational modeling of the ‘mirror system’ makes a nice example of how developmental robotics interprets learning, which differs from the current supervised learning systems that can be trained with large, labeled data sets. In developmental robotics, learning data is mostly generated by the learning agent itself and is limited. When external information exists, severe restrictions exist as to what type of data is accessible to the agent. In this talk, I will present a pre-deep learning era mirror neuron modeling, followed by a new model that incorporates the state-of-the art deep neural networks. The latter work indicates that with developmentally valid constraints interesting behaviors may emerge even without feature engineering supporting the hypothesis that mirror neurons develop based on self-observation learning.

Apr 19, 2022

Nuri Benbarka, University of Tübingen

Instance Segmentation and 3D Multi-Object Tracking for Autonomous Driving

Autonomous driving promises to change the way we live. It could save lives, provide mobility, reduce wasted time driving, and enable new ways to design our cities. One crucial component in an autonomous driving system is perception, understanding the environment around the car to take proper driving commands. This talk will discuss two perception tasks: instance segmentation and 3D multi-object tracking. In instance segmentation, we discuss different mask representations and propose representing the mask’s boundary as Fourier series. We show that this implicit representation is compact, fast, and gives the highest mAP for a small number of parameters on the dataset MS COCO. Furthermore, during our work on instance segmentation, we found that the Fourier series is linked with the emerging field of implicit neural representations (INR). We show that the general form of the Fourier series is a Fourier mapped perceptron with integer frequencies. As a result, we know that one perceptron is enough to represent any signal if the Fourier mapping matrix has enough frequencies. In 3D MOT, we focus on tracklet management systems, classifying them into count-based and confidence-based systems. We found that the score update functions used previously for confidence-based systems are not optimal. Therefore, we propose better score update functions that give better score estimates. In addition, we used the same technique for the late fusion of object detectors. Finally, we tested our algorithm on the NuScenes and Waymo datasets, giving a consistent AMOTA boost.re given.

Mar 29, 2022

Prof. Dr. Björn Schuller, Imperial College London & University of Augsburg

Real Artificial Audio Intelligence: Computers Can Also Hear

We already got used to computers somewhat understanding our speech, and we can experience how well computers can already see, for example in autonomous vehicles. But can they also hear as good as we can or beyond? This talk introduces a new perspective on Computer Audition, by dissecting sounds into the individual sound sources and attributing them rich states and traits. Likewise, the sound of a cup put onto a desk becomes the sound sources “cup” and “desk” with attribution such as “the cup is made of china, has a crack, and seems half-full of liquid” or “the desk is made of pinewood and about 3 cm thick”, etc. As modelling such rich descriptions comes at tremendous data cravings, advances in self-supervised learning for audio as well as zero- and few-shot learning concepts are introduced among other data efficiency techniques. The talk shows a couple of first advances. Beyond, applications reaching from saving our health to saving our planet are given.

Mar 22, 2022

Ali Safaya, Koç University & Taner Sezer from Mersin University

Turkish Data Depository Project: Towards a Unified Turkish NLP Research Platform

The Turkish language has been left out of the state-of-the-art Natural Language Processing due to a lack of organized research communities. The lack of organized platforms makes it hard for foreign and junior researchers to contribute to Turkish NLP. We present the Turkish Data Depository (tdd.ai) project as a remedy for this. The main goal of TDD subprojects is collecting and organizing Turkish Natural Language Processing (NLP) datasets and providing a research basis for Turkish NLP. In this talk, I will present the results of our ongoing efforts to build TDD. I will go over our recently published user-friendly hub for Turkish NLP datasets (data.tdd.ai). Moreover, I will present our recently accepted ACL’22 paper on Mukayese (mukayese.tdd.ai), a benchmarking platform for various Turkish NLP tools and tasks, ranging from Spell-checking to Natural Language Understanding tasks (NLU).

Mar 8, 2022

Prof. Dr. Murat Tekalp, Koç University

State of The Art in Deep Learning for Image/Video Super-Resolution

Recent advances in neural architectures and training methods led to significant improvements in the performance of learned image/video restoration and SR. We can consider learned image restoration and SR as learning either a mapping from the space of degraded images to ideal images based on the universal approximation theorem or a generative model that captures the probability distribution of ideal images. An important benefit of data-driven deep learning approach is that neural models can be optimized for any differentiable loss function, including visual perceptual loss functions, leading to perceptual video restoration and SR, which cannot be easily handled by traditional model-based approaches. I will discuss loss functions and evaluation criteria for image/video restoration and SR, including fidelity and perceptual criteria, and the relation between them, where we briefly review the perception vs. fidelity (distortion) trade-off. We then discuss practical problems in applying supervised training to real-life restoration and SR, including overfitting image priors and overfitting the degradation model and some possible ways to deal with these problems.

Feb 22, 2022

Damla Övek & Zeynep Abalı, Koç University

Prediction of Protein-Protein Interactions Using Deep Learning

Proteins interact through their interfaces to fulfill essential functions in the cell. They bind to their partners in a highly specific manner and form complexes that have a profound effect on understanding the biological pathways they are involved in. Any abnormal interactions may cause diseases. As experimental data accumulates, artificial intelligence (AI) begins to be used and recent groundbreaking applications of AI profoundly impact the structural biology field. In this talk, we will discuss the deep learning methods applied for the prediction of protein-protein interactions and their interfaces.

 

Feb 15, 2022

Alper Erdoğan, Koç University

Polytopic Matrix Factorization and Information Maximization Based Unsupervised Learning

We introduce Polytopic Matrix Factorization (PMF) as a flexible unsupervised data decomposition approach. In this new framework, we model input data as unknown linear transformations of some latent vectors drawn from a polytope. The choice of polytope reflects the presumed features of the latent components and their mutual relationships. As the factorization criterion, we propose the determinant maximization (Det-Max) for the sample autocorrelation matrix of the latent vectors. We introduce a sufficient condition for identifiability, which requires that the convex hull of the latent vectors contains the maximum volume inscribed ellipsoid of the polytope with a particular tightness constraint. Based on the Det-Max criterion and the proposed identifiability condition, we show that all polytopes that satisfy a particular symmetry restriction qualify for the PMF framework. Having infinitely many polytope choices provides a form of flexibility in characterizing latent vectors. In particular, it is possible to define latent vectors with heterogeneous features, enabling the assignment of attributes such as nonnegativity and sparsity at the subvector level. We also propose an information-theoretic perspective for the determinant maximization-based matrix factorization frameworks. As further extensions, we will discuss the normative construction of neural networks based on local update rules.

Feb 10, 2022

Leyla Keser, İstanbul Bilgi University

Key Elements of the future legally binding instrument of the Council of Europe (CoE) Ad-Hoc Committee on AI (CAHAI)

The key elements of the CoE AI Convention, which will be the first Convention on AI in the world, have been prepared by an ad-hoc committee called CAHAI, which was established in 2019. CAHAI completed its mission with its last meeting on November 30-December 2, 2021, leaving behind a text detailing with the key elements that the binding international AI convention will come into force. In this event, this text prepared by CAHAI will be discussed with the participants explaining key elements regarding the entire lifecycle of AI.

Feb 8, 2022

Hooman Hedayati, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill

Improving Human-Robot Conversational Groups

This work aims to improve human-robot conversational groups, in which a robot is situated in an F-formation with humans. With a naive look, each robot consists of input devices e.g., sensors, cameras, etc. logic and decision-making blocks e.g., face detection algorithm, NLP, etc., and output devices e.g., actuators and speakers, etc. These components connect serially. Each component is prone to errors; therefore, each error feeds into the next component and decreases the overall efficiency of the system. For example, if the camera cannot see a person because of being obstructed by an object, then the human detection algorithm cannot detect that person and then the robot won’t consider that person in the interaction. These types of errors decrease the efficiency of the system and also negatively impact human-robot interaction. In this work, we propose four systems that aim to help understand human-robot conversational groups better, reason about them, find the mentioned errors and overcome them. First, we look at the difference between human-human conversational groups and human-robot conversation groups. Second, we propose an algorithm to detect conversational groups (F-formations). Third, we look at how to detect missing people in the conversational groups and validate human-detection algorithms. Last, we propose an algorithm to detect the active speaker based on visual cues and help robots behave normally in conversational groups.

Jan 26, 2022

Weights & Biases

ML Model Optimization with Weights & Biases

We had our very first tutorial talk!

Weights & Biases introduced their platform to monitor training of neural network models.

Jan 12, 2022

Raffaella Bernardi, University of Trento

Two Challenges Behind Visual Dialogues: Grounding Negation and Asking an Informative Question

Visual Dialogues are an intriguing challenge for the Computer Vision and Computational Linguistics communities. They involve both understanding multimodal inputs as well as generating visually grounded questions. We take the GuessWhat?! game as test-bed since it has a simple dialogue structure — Yes-No question answer asymmetric exchanges. We wonder to which extent State-Of-The-Art models take the answers into account and in particular whether they handle positively/negatively answered questions equally well. Moreover, the task is goal oriented: the questioner has to guess the target object in an image. As such it is well suited to study dialogue strategies. SOTA systems are shown to generate questions that, although grammatically correct, often lack an effective strategy and sound unnatural to humans. Inspired by the cognitive literature on information search and cross-situational word learning, we propose Confirm-it, a model based on a beam search re-ranking algorithm that guides an effective goal-oriented strategy by asking questions that confirm the model’s conjecture about the referent. We show that dialogues generated by Confirm-it are more natural and effective than beam search decoding without re-ranking. The work is based on the following publications: Alberto Testoni, Claudio Greco and Raffaella Bernardi Artificial Intelligence models do not ground negation, humans do. GuessWhat?! dialogues as a case study Front.ers in Big Data doi: 10.3389/fdata.2021.736709 Alberto Testoni, Raffaella Bernardi “Looking for Confirmations: An Effective and Human-Like Visual Dialogue Strategy”. In Proceedings of EMNLP 2021 (Short paper).

Jan 5, 2022

Ayşegül Dündar, Bilkent University

Controllable Image Synthesis

With GAN based models achieving realistic image synthesis on various objects, there has been an increased interest to deploy them for gaming, robotics, architectural designs, and AR/VR applications. However, such applications also require full controllability on the synthesis. To enable controllability, image synthesis has been conditioned on various inputs such as semantic maps, keypoints, and edges to name a few. With these methods, control and manipulation over generated images are still limited. In a new line of research, methods are proposed to learn 3D attributes from images for precise control on the rendering. In this talk, I will cover a range of image synthesis works, starting with conditional image synthesis and continue with 3D attributes learning from single view images for the aim of image synthesis.

Dec 29, 2021

Ayça Atabey, Bilgi IT Law and UN Women

An Interdisciplinary Look at Fairness in AI-driven Assistive Technologies: Mapping Value Sensitive Design (Human-Computer Interaction) onto Data Protection Principles

Value sensitive design (VSD) in Human-Computer Interaction is an established method for integrating values into technical design. Design of AI-driven technologies for vulnerable data subjects requires a particular attention to values such as transparency, fairness, and accountability. To achieve this, there is a need for an interdisciplinary look to the fairness principle in data protection law to bridge the gap between what the law requires and what happens in practice. This talk explores the interdisciplinary approach to Fairness in AI-driven Assistive Technologies through mapping VSD onto Data Protection rules.

Dec 22, 2021

Iacer Calixto, University of Amsterdam & New York University

VALSE : A Task-Independent Benchmark for Vision and Language Models Centered on Linguistic Phenomena

I will talk about a recent collaborative work on VALSE (Vision And Language Structured Evaluation), a novel benchmark designed for testing general-purpose pretrained vision and language (V&L) models for their visio-linguistic grounding capabilities on specific linguistic phenomena. VALSE offers a suite of tests covering various linguistic constructs. Solving these requires models to ground linguistic phenomena in the visual modality, allowing more fine-grained evaluations than hitherto possible. We build VALSE using methods that support the construction of valid foils, and report results from evaluating five widely-used V&L models. Our experiments suggest that current models have considerable difficulty addressing most phenomena. Hence, we expect VALSE to serve as an important benchmark to measure future progress of pretrained V&L models from a linguistic perspective, complementing the canonical task centred V&L evaluations.

Dec 15, 2021

Sıla Kurugol, Harvard Medical School

Quantification of Clinically Useful Information from 3D and 4D MR Images: Computational and Deep Learning Techniques for Image Reconstruction, Motion Compensation and Quantitative Parameter Estimation

The talk will focus on the use of medical imaging, computational and deep learning techniques for the discovery and quantification of clinically useful information from 3D and 4D medical images. The talk will describe how computational techniques or deep learning methods can be used for the reconstruction of MR images from undersampled (limited) data for accelerated MR imaging, motion-compensated imaging and robust quantitative parameter estimation and image analysis. It will also show the clinical utility of these proposed techniques for the interpretation of medical images and extraction of important clinical markers in applications such as functional imaging of kidneys and Crohn’s disease.

Dec 1, 2021

Jan-Philipp Fränken, University of Edinburgh

Algorithms of Adaptation in Inductive Inference

We investigate the idea that human concept inference utilizes local incremental search within a compositional mental theory space. To explore this, we study judgments in a challenging task, where participants actively gather evidence about a symbolic rule governing the behavior of a simulated environment. Participants construct mini-experiments before making generalizations and explicit guesses about the hidden rule. They then collect additional evidence themselves (Experiment 1) or observe evidence gathered by someone else (Experiment 2) before revising their own generalizations and guesses. In each case, we focus on the relationship between participants’ initial and revised guesses about the hidden rule concept. We find an order effect whereby revised guesses are anchored to idiosyncratic elements of the earlier guesses. To explain this pattern, we develop a family of process accounts that combine program induction ideas with local (MCMC-like) adaptation mechanisms. A particularly local variant of this adaptive account captures participants’ revisions better than a range of alternatives. We take this as suggestive that people deal with the inherent complexity of concept inference partly through use of local adaptive search in a latent compositional theory space.

Nov 22, 2021

Erdem Bıyık, Stanford University

Learning Preferences for Interactive Autonomy

In human-robot interaction or more generally multi-agent systems, we often have decentralized agents that need to perform a task together. In such settings, it is crucial to have the ability to anticipate the actions of other agents. Without this ability, the agents are often doomed to perform very poorly. Humans are usually good at this, and it is mostly because we can have good estimates of what other agents are trying to do. We want to give such an ability to robots through reward learning and partner modeling. In this talk, I am going to talk about active learning approaches to this problem and how we can leverage preference data to learn objectives. I am going to show how preferences can help reward learning in the settings where demonstration data may fail, and how partner-modeling enables decentralized agents to cooperate efficiently.

Nov 3, 2021

Zaid Rassim Mohammed Al-Saadi, Koç Univesity

A Novel Haptic Feature Set for the Classification of Interactive Motor Behaviors in Collaborative Object Transfer

Haptics provides a natural and intuitive channel of communication during the interaction of two humans in complex physical tasks, such as joint object transportation. However, despite the utmost importance of touch in physical interactions, the use of haptics is under-represented when developing intelligent systems. This study explores the prominence of haptic data to extract information about underlying interaction patterns within physical human-human interaction (pHHI). We work on a joint object transportation scenario involving two human partners, and show that haptic features, based on force/torque information, suffice to identify human interactive behavior patterns. We categorize the interaction into four discrete behavior classes. These classes describe whether the partners work in harmony or face conflicts while jointly transporting an object through translational or rotational movements. In an experimental study, we collect data from 12 human dyads and verify the salience of haptic features by achieving a correct classification rate over 91% using a Random Forest classifier.

Oct 26, 2021

Laura Leal-Taixé from Technical University of Munich

Shifting Paradigms in Multi-Object Tracking

The challenging task of multi-object tracking (MOT) requires simultaneous reasoning about track initialization, identity, and spatiotemporal trajectories. This problem has been traditionally addressed with the tracking-dy-detection paradigm. In this talk, I will discuss more recent paradigms, most notably, tracking-by-regression, and the rise of a new paradigm: tracking-by-attention. In this new paradigm, we formulate MOT as a frame-to-frame set prediction problem and introduce TrackFormer, an end-to-end MOT approach based on an encoder-decoder Transformer architecture. Our model achieves data association between frames via attention by evolving a set of track predictions through a video sequence. The Transformer decoder initializes new tracks from static object queries and autoregressively follows existing tracks in space and time with the new concept of identity preserving track queries. Both decoder query types benefit from self- and encoder-decoder attention on global frame-level features, thereby omitting any additional graph optimization and matching or modeling of motion and appearance. At the end of the talk, I also want to discuss some of our work in collecting data for tracking with data privacy in mind.

Oct 21, 2021

Mustafa Ümit Öner from National University of Singapore

How strong are the weak labels in digital histopathology?

Histopathology is the golden standard in the clinic for cancer diagnosis and treatment planning. Recently, slide scanners have transformed histopathology into digital, where glass slides are digitized and stored as whole-slide-images (WSIs). WSIs provide us with precious data that powerful deep learning models can exploit. However, a WSI is a huge gigapixel image that traditional deep learning models cannot process. Besides, deep learning models require a lot of labeled data. Nevertheless, most WSIs are either unannotated or annotated with some weak labels indicating slide-level properties, like a tumor slide or a normal slide. This seminar will discuss our novel deep learning models tackling huge images and exploiting weak labels to reveal fine-level information within the images. Firstly, we developed a weakly supervised clustering framework. Given only the weak labels of whether an image contains metastases or not, this framework successfully segmented out breast cancer metastases in the lymph node sections. Secondly, we developed a deep learning model predicting tumor purity (percentage of cancer cells within a tissue section) from digital histopathology slides. Our model successfully predicted tumor purity in eight different TCGA cohorts and a local Singapore cohort. The predictions were highly consistent with genomic tumor purity values, which were inferred from genomic data and accepted as accurate for downstream analysis. Furthermore, our model provided tumor purity maps showing the spatial variation of tumor purity within sections, which can help better understand the tumor microenvironment.

Oct 20, 2021

Barret Zoph from Google Brain

Switch Transformers: Scaling to Trillion Parameter Models with Simple and Efficient Sparsity

In deep learning, models typically reuse the same parameters for all inputs. Mixture of Experts (MoE) models defy this and instead select different parameters for each incoming example. The result is a sparsely-activated model – with an outrageous number of parameters – but a constant computational cost. However, despite several notable successes of MoE, widespread adoption has been hindered by complexity, communication costs, and training instability. We address these with the Switch Transformer. We simplify the MoE routing algorithm and design intuitive improved models with reduced communication and computational costs. Our proposed training techniques mitigate the instabilities, and we show large sparse models may be trained, for the first time, with lower precision formats. We design models based off T5-Base and T5-Large (Raffel et al., 2019) to obtain up to 7x increases in pre-training speed with the same computational resources. These improvements extend into multilingual settings where we measure gains over the mT5-Base version across all 101 languages. Finally, we advance the current scale of language models by pre-training up to trillion parameter models on the “Colossal Clean Crawled Corpus”, and achieve a 4x speedup over the T5-XXL model.

 

Oct 12, 2021

Fatih Dinç, Stanford University

Uncovering The Neural Circuitry in The Brain Using Recurrent Neural Networks

The talk is structured in two parts. The first part focuses on the developments in recurrent neural network training algorithms over the years. We first identify the types of recurrent neural networks currently used in neuroscience research based on the training properties and target function. Here, we will discuss the seminal work by Sompolinsky and Crisanti from 1988 regarding chaos in random neural networks, the reservoir computing paradigm, back-propagation through time, and neural activation (not output) based training algorithms. In the second part, we will go through a selection of papers from neuroscience literature using these methods to uncover the neural circuitry in the brain. As machine learning and neuroscience literature have always inspired progress in each other, there is a high chance that some of these biological findings might have direct relevance in artificial neural network research. We will conclude with some candidate ideas.

 

Oct 6, 2021

Ali Hürriyetoğlu, Koç University

Challenging the Standards for Socio-Political Event Information Collection

Spatio-temporal distribution of socio-political events sheds light on the causes and effects of government policies and political discourses that resonate in society. Socio-political event data is utilized for national and international policy- and decision-making. Therefore, the reliability and validity of these datasets are of utmost importance. I will present a summary of my studies that examine common assumptions made during creating socio-political event databases such as GDELT and ICEWS. The assumptions I tackled have been 1) keyword filtering is an essential step for determining the documents that should be analyzed further, 2) a news report contains information about a single event, 3) sentences that are self-contained in terms of event information coverage are the majority, and 4) automated tool performance on new data is comparable to the performance on the validation setting. Moreover, I will present how my work brought the computer science and socio-political science communities together to quantify state-of-the-art automated tool performances on event information collection in cross-context and multilingual settings in the context of a shared task and workshop series, which are ProtestNews Lab @ CLEF 2019, COPE @ Euro CSS 2019, AESPEN @ LREC 2020, and CASE @ ACL 2021, I initiated.

 

Sep 28, 2021

Abdul Basit Anees and Ahmet Canberk Baykal, KUIS AI MSc Fellows

Text-Guided Image Manipulation Using GAN Inversion

Recent GAN models are capable of generating very high-quality images. Then, a very important follow-up problem is, how to control these generated images. A careful analysis of the latent space of GANs suggests that this control can be achieved by manipulating the latent codes in a desired direction. In this talk, we will be presenting our model that is capable of modifying images in such a way that they have some desired attributes corresponding to any text description. For this purpose, we use the idea of GAN inversion. Our model makes use of two encoders to invert the images along with their textual descriptions to the latent space of a pre-trained StyleGAN model. Additionally, we utilize OpenAI’s Contrastive Language-Image Pre-training (CLIP) model to enforce the latent codes to be aligned with the desired textual descriptions. The inverted latent codes are fed to the StyleGAN generator to obtain the manipulated images. We conducted experiments on face datasets and compared our results with the related work.

 

Sep 21, 2021

Cagatay Yildiz, Aalto University, Finland

Continuous-Time Model-Based Reinforcement Learning

Model-based reinforcement learning (MBRL) approaches rely on discrete-time state transition models whereas physical systems and the vast majority of control tasks operate in continuous-time. Such discrete-time approximations typically lead to inaccurate dynamic models, which in turn deteriorate the control learning task. In this talk, I will describe an alternative continuous-time MBRL framework for RL. Our approach infers the unknown state evolution differentials with Bayesian neural ordinary differential equations (ODE) to account for epistemic uncertainty. We also propose a novel continuous-time actor-critic algorithm for policy learning. Our experiments illustrate that the model is robust against irregular and noisy data, is sample-efficient, and can solve control problems which pose challenges to discrete-time MBRL methods.

 

Sep 14, 2021

Deqing Sun, Google Research

Learning Optical Flow: from Model to Data

Optical flow provides important motion information about the dynamic world and is of fundamental importance to many tasks. In this talk, I will discuss two different aspects of learning optical flow: model and data. I will start with the background and classical approach to optical flow. Next, I will talk about PWC-Net, a compact and effective model built using classical principles for optical flow. Finally, I will introduce AutoFlow, a simple and effective method to render training data for optical flow that optimizes the performance of a model on a target dataset.

 

 

Sep 7, 2021

Jordi Pont-Tuset, Google Research

Tightly Connecting Vision and Language: Localized Narratives and Beyond

Localized Narratives are a new form of multimodal image annotations connecting vision and language: annotators describe an image with their voice while simultaneously hovering their mouse over the region they are describing. Since the voice and the mouse pointer are synchronized, we can localize every single word in the description. Based on and inspired by this data, we first designed a new image retrieval modality by “speaking and pointing”, which comes naturally to humans and we show it works very well in practice. Second, we robustly matched the noun phrases in the captions to the panoptic categories in COCO to provide a dense pixel grounding. With this new data, we propose the new task of Panoptic Narrative Grounding and present a very solid baseline that, given an image caption, outputs a segmentation that grounds all their nouns.

 

August 17, 2021

Tunca Doğan, Hacettepe University

Development and Application of Data-Driven Approaches to Make Sense out of Large-Scale and Heterogeneous Biomolecular Data

The recent availability of inexpensive technologies led to a surge of biological/biomedical data production and accumulation in public servers. These noisy, complex and large-scale data should be analyzed in order to understand mechanisms that constitute life and to develop new and effective treatments against prevalent dieases. A key concept in this endeavour is the prediction of unknown attributes and properties of biomolecules (i.e., genes, proteins and RNAs) such as their molecular functions, physical interactions and etc., together with their relationships to high-level biomedical concepts such as systems and diseases. Lately, cutting-edge data-driven approaches are started to be applied to biological data to aid the development of novel and effective in silico solutions. In this seminar, I’ll summarize our efforts for integrating and representing heterogeneous data from different biological/biomedical data resources (i.e., the CROssBAR project) together with the development and application of deep learning-based computational methods for enriching the integrated data by predicting unknown functions and drug discovery centric ligand interactions of human genes and proteins. These tools and services are developed with the aim of helping researchers from diverse fields of the life-sciences domain in building and pre-evaluating their hypothesis, before planning and executing costly and risky experimental/clinical studies.

August 10, 2021

Ahsan Ali, Argonne National Lab, USA

Towards Scalable and Adaptive Machine Learning Design and Training

Machine-Learning-as-a-Service (MLaaS) aims to support the optimized execution of machine learning (ML) tasks on cloud infrastructure. Existing MLaaS systems are mainly built atop conventional VM- based architectures and suffer from slow scaling, are cost-inefficient, and require extensive domain expertise to optimize the training deployment and execution. Moreover, ML training tasks often have varying resource demands across different training phases, which adds to the complexity. To address these challenges, we propose SMLT, an automated, scalable, and adaptive framework to perform ML design and training on cloud infrastructure. By embracing the emerging serverless computing paradigm, SMLT provides flexibility and cost-efficiency. By employing a hierarchical model synchronization mechanism, SMLT addresses the challenge of poor inter-connections between serverless functions. In addition, we design an automated and adaptive scheduling mechanism to dynamically optimize the deployment and resource scaling for ML tasks during training. SMLT supports all major ML frameworks and is open-sourced. The experimental evaluation with large, sophisticated modern ML models demonstrates that SMLT outperforms the state-of-the-art MLaaS systems and existing serverless ML training frameworks in both performances (up to 8x) and monetary cost (up to 2x).

July 29, 2021

Berkay Köprü, Koc University

Use of Affective Visual Information for Summarization of Human-Centric Videos

Increasing volume of user-generated human-centric video content and their applications, such as video retrieval and browsing, require compact representations that are addressed by the video summarization literature. Current supervised studies formulate video summarization as a sequence-to-sequence learning problem and the existing solutions often neglect the surge of human-centric view, which inherently contains affective content. In this study, we investigate the affective-information enriched supervised video summarization task for human-centric videos. First, we train a visual input-driven state-of-the-art continuous emotion recognition model (CER-NET) on the RECOLA dataset to estimate emotional attributes. Then, we integrate the estimated emotional attributes and the high-level representations from the CER-NET with the visual information to define the proposed affective video summarization architectures (AVSUM). In addition, we investigate the use of attention to improve the AVSUM architectures and propose two new architectures based on temporal attention (TA-AVSUM) and spatial attention (SA-AVSUM). We conduct video summarization experiments on the TvSum database. The proposed AVSUM-GRU architecture with an early fusion of high level GRU embeddings and the temporal attention based TA-AVSUM architecture attain competitive video summarization performances by bringing strong performance improvements for the human-centric videos compared to the state-of-the-art in terms of F-score and self-defined face recall metrics.

July 27, 2021

Yonatan Bisk, Carnegie Mellon University

Instructions, Abstraction, and Theory-of-Mind

This talk focuses on an overview of our recent environments and benchmarks: ALFRED and ALFWorld for instruction following in embodied and abstract action spaces. The goal is to help move the community towards building agents that connect language to action and understand abstract plans. As we move towards systems which interact with the world, we also need to think about how they interact with other agents. I close with a discussion of our recent ICML paper on Theory-of-Mind agents.

 

 

 

July 13, 2021

Marjan Firouznia, Amirkabir University

Develop New Deep Learning/Machine Learning Models for Medical Image Analysis

Biomedical image segmentation is an important tool for current clinical applications and basic research. The manual segmentation of medical images is a time-consuming, labor-intensive, and error-prone process. In Artificial Intelligence (AI), approaches inspired by mathematical models such as probability distribution mixture models and optimization theory have been employed to handle some main challenges in these areas. In this project we will propose new image segmentation methods for biomedical image analysis using deep learning models and fractal maps from CT scans. We will improve traditional image segmentation in 3D and deep learning models for CT/MRI scans. Also, we will apply the fractal features and Poincare maps to propose a new deep learning model for 3D segmentation using rich information of regions and voxels. The fractal analysis is used to represent shape and texture-based features to separate region interest from it surrounding. Then, we will apply Poincare maps to model the changes of boundaries to achieve a robust segmentation with high anatomical variations. Also, a novel machine learning (ML) method using a deep learning approach will be introduced for semantic segmentation of vessels, nodules, and myocardial walls using fractal maps. Multi-task fully convolutional networks (FCNs) will be constructed to improve the accuracy of semantic segmentation. These FCNs will learn the main task of semantic segmentation together with the auxiliary tasks of estimating the fractal maps.

July 6, 2021

Mustafa Akın Yılmaz, Koç University

End-to-End Rate-Distortion Optimization for Bi-Directional Learned Video Compression

Conventional video compression methods employ a linear transform and block motion model, and the steps of motion estimation, mode and quantization parameter selection, and entropy coding are optimized individually due to the combinatorial nature of the end-to-end optimization problem. Learned video compression allows end-to-end rate-distortion optimized training of all nonlinear modules, quantization parameter and entropy model simultaneously. Most of the works on learned video compression considered training a sequential video codec based on end-to-end optimization of cost averaged over pairs of successive frames. It is well-known in conventional video compression that hierarchical, bi-directional coding outperforms sequential compression because of its ability to selectively use reference frames from both future and past. To this effect, a hierarchical bi-directional learned lossy video compression system is presented in this thesis. Experimental results show that the rate-distortion performance of the proposed framework outperforms both traditional and other learned codecs in the literature yielding state-of-the art results.

Jun 29, 2021

Barbara Plank, IT University of Copenhagen

Learning with Scarce and Biased Data in Natural Language Processing

Transferring knowledge to solve a related problem and learning from scarce labeled data and unreliable biased inputs are examples of extraordinary human ability. State-of-the-art NLP models often fail under such conditions. In this talk, I will present some recent work to addresses these ubiquitous challenges. This includes work on cross-lingual learning for NLP, multi-task learning and learning from unreliable data.

Jun 22, 2021

 Atil Iscen, Google Brain Robotics

Learning Legged Locomotion

Designing agile locomotion controllers for quadruped robots often requires extensive expertise and tedious manual tuning. Reinforcement Learning has shown success in solving many difficult control problems, and has potential to help with learning locomotion for physical robots. In this talk, I’ll present different methods we developed to tackle the locomotion problem using learning: Embedding prior knowledge, sim-to-real transfer, model-based reinforcement learning, hierarchical reinforcement learning, multi-task learning and using a mentor for harder tasks.

 

 

Jun 15, 2021

Jure Žbontar, Facebook AI Research

Barlow Twins: Self-Supervised Learning via Redundancy Reduction

Self-supervised learning (SSL) is rapidly closing the gap with supervised methods on large computer vision benchmarks. A successful approach to SSL is to learn representations which are invariant to distortions of the input sample. However, a recurring issue with this approach is the existence of trivial constant representations. Most current methods avoid such collapsed solutions by careful implementation details. We propose an objective function that naturally avoids such collapse by measuring the cross-correlation matrix between the outputs of two identical networks fed with distorted versions of a sample, and making it as close to the identity matrix as possible. This causes the representation vectors of distorted versions of a sample to be similar, while minimizing the redundancy between the components of these vectors. The method is called Barlow Twins, owing to neuroscientist H. Barlow’s redundancy-reduction principle applied to a pair of identical networks. Barlow Twins does not require large batches nor asymmetry between the network twins such as a predictor network, gradient stopping, or a moving average on the weight updates. It allows the use of very high-dimensional output vectors. Barlow Twins outperforms previous methods on ImageNet for semi-supervised classification in the low-data regime, and is on par with current state of the art for ImageNet classification with a linear classifier head, and for transfer tasks of classification and object detection.

Jun 8, 2021

Fatma Güney, KUIS AI, Koç University

Structure, Motion, and Future Prediction in Dynamic Scenes

In this talk, I’ll talk about what we’ve been working on with Sadra and Kaan* in the last one and a half years in my group**. I’ll start by introducing the view synthesis approach to unsupervised monocular depth and ego-motion estimation by Zhou et al. [1]. I’ll point to its limitation with dynamic objects due to static background assumption and mention a few related works addressing it by conditioning on a given segmentation map. Then, I’ll introduce our approach to jointly reason about segmentation and depth without any conditioning. In the second part, I’ll introduce the stochastic video prediction framework proposed by Denton et al. [2] and show how we extend it to motion space with “SLAMP: Stochastic Latent Appearance and Motion Prediction”. Finally, I’ll talk about how structure and motion from the first part can help stochastic video prediction from the second part in real-world driving scenarios. [1] T. Zhou, M. Brown, N. Snavely, and D. G. Lowe. Unsupervised learning of depth and ego-motion from video. In Proc. IEEE Conf. on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 2017. [2] E. Denton and R. Fergus. Stochastic video generation with a learned prior. In Proc. of the International Conf. on Machine learning (ICML), 2018. *Also in collaboration with Aykut Erdem and Erkut Erdem. **Work under submission, please do not share.

Jun 1, 2021

Ömer Güneş, University of Oxford

Character Identification from Narrative Text

Having more than ten kinds of style; e.g. autobiography, fable, historical fiction, novel; narrative text constitutes an important part of written text. Despite the abundance of long-form textual data, it is not straightforward to develop robust natural language processing (NLP) models to understand narrative text automatically. Even for domain experts, analyzing and interpreting potentially long and complicated narrative (literary) texts to extract legible and concise information is a difficult process. Characters are among the most important aspects of a story. It is crucial to identify the characters of a narrative to understand that narrative deeply. Therefore, automatic character identification is a critical task in narrative natural language understanding. In this talk, we will provide a comprehensive overview of this new and exciting paradigm of character identification in the context of NLP and deep learning, and then we outline the major research challenges. We will also present our recent approach to automatically identifying characters from unannotated stories in natural language text, segmentation of conversations and attribution of utterances to characters for generating longform multi-voice audiobooks at scale.

May 18, 2021

Cengiz Öztireli from Google Research, University of Cambridge

3D Digital Reality Modeling for Perception

Creating digital models of reality is one of the grand challenges of computer science. In this talk, I will summarize some of our efforts towards achieving this goal to allow machines to perceive the world as well as and beyond humans. The focus will be on capturing and replicating the visual world and techniques at the intersection of computer graphics, vision, and machine learning to solve several fundamental problems and their practical applications.

 

 

 

 

May 11, 2021

 Sinan Öncü, Smart and Autonomous Mobility Research Laboratory, Boğaziçi University.

Cooperative Perception and Control for Autonomous Vehicles

This talk will be on past and currently ongoing research projects of Sinan Öncü on various autonomous mobile vehicle platforms ranging from warehouse robots to heavy duty trucks. Example applications within the field of automotive and robotics will be presented on the following automated vehicle platforms: Part 1: – Autonomous Parallel Parking of a Car-Like Mobile Robot, – Yaw Stability Control of a Car with Active Steering, – A Man-portable Rover Operating on Rough Terrains, – Cooperative Automated Maneuvering Vehicles, – EcoTwin: Truck Platooning on Highways, – Clara: A Warehouse Robot with Robust Multi-Sensor Localization, – Wasteshark: An Aqua-Drone for Cleaning Plastic Waste from the Harbors and Rivers. Part 2: [UTOPIA] Automated Open Precision Farming Platform The [UTOPIA] consortium, aims to develop an open access infrastructure in which relevant precision agriculture data can be collected from the field to be stored in the cloud and accessed through multiple stake-holders in the agri-food industry. In [UTOPIA], agricultural tasks and crop monitoring strategies can be easily set by the user, and the drones/USV’s/AGV’s are then automatically deployed to perform the mission(s) cooperatively. This technology will enable farmers to adopt smart precision farming technologies for improving yield and quality.

May 4, 2021

 Cansu Korkmaz, KUIS AI Fellow

Multiple-Model Learned Image Processing Benefiting from Class-Specific Image Priors

When an image processing model is trained for a given task on a training set, the performance of the model varies noticeably over the test set from image to image depending on how well the image patterns in the training set matches to those in the test set. Hence, image priors learned by a single generic model cannot generalize well enough for different classes of images. In this talk, I will briefly explain the effect of training multiple deep super-resolution (SR) models for different classes of images to exploit class-specific image priors. Then, I will present our proposed multiple-model SR (MMSR) approach which is a post-processing network that learns how to best fuse the outputs of these class-specific multiple SR models. Afterwards, I will interpret our experimental results which demonstrate that the proposed approach with a set of pre-trained models and a generic fusion model significantly outperforms a single pre-trained EDSR model both quantitatively and visually. It even exceeds the performance of the best single class-specific EDSR model trained on heterogenous images.

April 27, 2021

 Emre Ünal, KUIS AI Fellow

Fully Attention Based Methods for Video Understanding

In this presentation, I will talk about my ongoing work on video understanding. I will present a recent model that I have been working on for the action recognition problem. The model is fully attention-based and does not use any conventional neural architectures such as RNNs or CNNs. It uses multi-layer attention blocks for the task. I will talk about the implementation details and early experiment results on the popular human activity recognition dataset Charades.

 

 

April 20, 2021

 Gül Varol, Ecole des Ponts ParisTech

Scaling up Sign Language Recognition

In this talk, I will first briefly introduce challenges in sign language research from a computer vision perspective. A key stumbling block in making progress towards unconstrained sign language recognition is the lack of appropriate training data, stemming from the high complexity of sign annotation and a limited supply of qualified annotators. I will then present recent work on scalable approaches to automatic data collection for sign recognition in continuous videos. We make use of weakly-aligned subtitles for broadcast footage together with (1) visual keyword spotting through mouthing cues [ECCV’20], (2) looking up words in visual dictionaries [ACCV’20], and (3) leveraging attention mechanism to localise signs [CVPR’21]. With these, we automatically localise about 1 million sign instances from a vocabulary of over 1000 signs in 1000 hours of video. The resulting data can be used to train strong sign recognition models for co-articulated signs. I will conclude with discussing open problems and other tasks besides recognition in sign language research.

April 13, 2021

Gedas Bertasius, Facebook AI

Visual Perception Models for Semantic Video Understanding

Many modern computer vision applications require the ability to understand video content. In this talk, I will present a series of methods that we design for this purpose. First, I will introduce MaskProp, a unifying approach for classifying, segmenting and tracking object instances in the video. It achieves the best-reported accuracy on the YouTube-VIS dataset, outperforming the closest competitor despite being trained on 1000x fewer images and 10x fewer bounding boxes. Afterwards, I will present COBE, a new large-scale framework for learning contextualized object representations in settings involving human-object interactions. Our approach exploits automatically-transcribed speech narrations from instructional YouTube videos, and it does not require manual annotations. Lastly, I will introduce TimeSformer, the first convolution-free architecture for video modeling built exclusively with self-attention. It achieves the best reported numbers on major action recognition benchmarks, and it is also more efficient than the state-of-the-art 3D CNNs.

March 30, 2021

Ozan Şener, Intel Labs

Click here for slides.

The Trade-offs of Transfer Learning: Lessons from Meta-Learning and Multi-Task Learning

Transfer learning promises to improve the sample complexity of machine learning by searching for shared inductive biases across tasks, domains, and environments. Although empirical risk minimization is the workhorse of both single task supervised learning and transfer learning, transfer learning objectives are subject to qualitatively different trade-offs. The design space of transfer learning is typically multi-objective and hierarchical, necessitating a significantly different approach to understanding the sample complexity of the underlying problem. We start with meta-learning and rigorously define the trade-off between accurate modeling and optimization ease. At one end, classic meta-learning algorithms account for the structure of meta-learning but solve a complex optimization problem. In contrast, at the other end domain randomized search ignores the structure of meta-learning and solves a single-level optimization problem. Taking MAML as the representative meta-learning algorithm, we theoretically characterize the trade-off for general non-convex risk functions. We provide explicit bounds on the errors associated with modeling and optimization. We later move to the general problem of learning from multiple objectives and present a principled multi-objective optimization algorithm that applies to large-scale deep learning problems. We further analyze this algorithm in the context of learning from multiple domains and show exciting results, both positive and negative. Our further analysis reveals an interesting connection between multi-objective optimization and domain generalization.

March 23, 2021

Ozgur Oguz, Max Planck Institute

Click here for slides.

Physical Reasoning: How to Go from Seeing to Acting

Autonomous robots are envisioned to be ubiquitous in our daily lives. Such robots are expected to make sequential decisions, plan their motions, and control their movements to realize their expected goals. This remarkable skill set requires a new research direction where perception, discrete decision-making, motion planning, control, and learning methods are considered jointly to provide autonomy to the agent while physically interacting with the world. In this talk, I will present our initial steps toward tackling this goal. In particular, I will cover three lines of research: (i) explainable and effective representations directly from visual perception data, (ii) task decompositions and robust motion planning algorithms for long-horizon tasks, and (iii) (safe) learning for control of autonomous robots in the real-world.

March 16, 2021

Orhan Fırat, Google Research, Mountain View

Click here for slides.

On the Path to Universality for Machine Translation: Multilinguality, Scale, Objectives, and Optimization

Massively multilingual translation models jointly trained on hundreds of languages have been showing great success in processing multiple languages simultaneously within a single large neural network. These large multilingual translation models, which we call M4, are appealing for both efficiency and positive language transfer: (1) Training and deploying a single multilingual model requires much less resources than maintaining one model for each language considered, (2) by transferring knowledge from high-resource languages, multilingual models are able to improve performance on mind and low-resource languages. In this talk, we will be talking about our efforts on scaling machine translation models to more than 1000 languages and beyond 1T parameters. We will be detailing several research (and even some development) challenges that the project has tackled; multi-task learning with hundreds of tasks, learning under heavy data imbalance, building very large models and their optimization difficulties, understanding the learned representations, cross-lingual down-stream transfer, and many more insights will be shared.

March 9, 2021

Ece Takmaz,  Institute for Logic, Language and Computation (ILLC), University of Amsterdam (UvA)

Click here for slides.

Generating Image Descriptions Guided by Speaker-Specific Sequential Human Gaze

When speakers describe an image, there are certain visual and linguistic processes at work. For instance, speakers tend to look at an object before mentioning them. Inspired by these processes, we have developed the first models of image description generation informed by the cross-modal alignment between language and the human gaze. We build our models on a state-of-the-art image captioning model, which itself was inspired by the visual processes in humans. Our results show that aligning gaze with language production would help generate more diverse and more natural descriptions that are better aligned with human descriptions sequentially and semantically. In addition, such findings could shed light on human cognitive processes by comparing different ways of encoding the gaze modality and aligning it with language production.
At the end of my talk, I may briefly touch upon another project where we worked on resolving and generating incremental referring utterances in visual and conversational contexts, exemplifying another line of research that is conducted in my group.

March 2, 2021

Prof. Gülşen Eryiğit and Berke Oral, ITU Natural Language Processing Research Group

Click here for slides.

 Information Extraction from Text Intensive and Visually Rich Banking Documents

Abstract Document types, where visual and textual information plays an important role in their analysis and understanding, pose a new and attractive area for information extraction research. Although cheques, invoices, and receipts have been studied in some previous multi-modal studies, banking documents present an unexplored area due to the naturalness of the text they possess in addition to their visual richness. This article presents the first study which uses visual and textual information for deep-learning-based information extraction on text-intensive and visually rich scanned documents which are, in this instance, unstructured banking documents, or more precisely, money transfer orders. The impact of using different neural word representations (i.e., FastText, ELMo, and BERT) on IE subtasks (namely, named entity recognition and relation extraction stages), positional features of words on document images, and auxiliary learning with some other tasks are investigated. The article proposes a new relation extraction algorithm based on graph factorization to solve the complex relation extraction problem where the relations within documents are n-ary, nested, document-level, and previously indeterminate in quantity. Our experiments revealed that the use of deep learning algorithms yielded around 10 percentage points of improvement on the IE sub-tasks. The inclusion of word positional features yielded around 3 percentage points of improvement in some specific information fields. Similarly, our auxiliary learning experiments yielded around 2 percentage points of improvement on some information fields associated with the specific transaction type detected by our auxiliary task. The integration of the information extraction system into a real banking environment reduced cycle times substantially. When compared to the manual workflow, the document processing pipeline shortened book-to-book money transfers to 10 minutes (from 29 min.) and electronic fund transfers (EFT) to 17 minutes (from 41 min.) respectively.

February 23, 2021

Krishna Murthy Jatavallabhula, Robotics&Embodied AI Lab

Click here for slides.

Building Differentiable Models of the 3D World

Modern machine learning has created exciting new opportunities for the design of intelligent robots. In particular, gradient-based learning methods have tremendously While modern learning-based scene understanding systems have shown experimentally promising results in simulated scenarios, they fail in unpredictable and unintuitive ways when deployed in real-world applications. Classical systems, on the other hand, offer guarantees and bounds on performance and generalization, but often require heavy handcrafting and oversight. My research aims to deeply integrate classical and learning-based techniques to bring the best of both worlds, by building “differentiable models of the 3D world”. I will talk about two particular recent efforts along these directions. improved 3D scene understanding in terms of perception, reasoning, and action. However, these advancements have undermined many “classical” techniques developed over the last few decades. I postulate that a flexible blend of “classical” and learned methods is the most promising path to developing flexible, interpretable, and actionable models of the world: a necessity for intelligent embodied agents. 1. gradSLAM – a fully differentiable dense SLAM system that can be plugged as a “layer” into neural nets 2. gradSim – a differentiable simulator comprising a physics engine and a renderer, to enable physical parameter estimation and visuomotor control from the video.

February 16, 2021

Nasrin Rahimi, KUIS AI Fellow

Click here for slides.

Perceptual Video Super-Resolution

Perceptual video processing is a challenging task, mostly due to the lack of effective measures of temporal consistency and naturalness of motion in processed videos. In this talk, we first explain the successful video restoration and super-resolution network EDVR (Enhanced Deformable Convolutional Networks), and the role of deformable convolution in its architecture. Then, we present our recent work which is an extension of EDVR for perceptual video super-resolution in two ways: i) including a texture discriminator network and adversarial texture loss in order to improve the naturalness of texture, and ii) including l2 flow loss, a flow discriminator network and adversarial flow loss to ensure motion naturalness. We observe that adding only adversarial texture loss yields more natural texture in each frame, but not necessarily a smooth natural motion. Perceptual motion improves significantly when using both l2 motion loss and adversarial texture and flow losses in addition to l2 texture loss. Finally, we discuss the perceptual performance metrics and evaluation of the results.

February 9, 2021

Onur Keleş, KUIS AI Fellow

Click here for slides.

Self-Organizing Operational Neural Networks and Image Super-Resolution

It has become a standard practice to use convolutional networks in image restoration and super-resolution. Although the universal approximation theorem states that a multi-layer neural network can approximate any non-linear function with the desired precision, it does not reveal the best network architecture to do so. Recently, operational neural networks that choose the best non-linearity from a set of alternatives, and their “self-organized” variants that approximate any non-linearity via Taylor series have been proposed to address the well-known limitations and drawbacks of conventional ConvNets such as network homogeneity using only the McCulloch-Pitts neuron model. In this talk, I first briefly mention the operational neural networks (ONNs) and self-organized operational neural networks (Self-ONNs). Then I introduce the concept of self-organized operational residual (SOR) blocks, and present hybrid network architectures combining regular residual and SOR blocks to strike a balance between the benefits of stronger non-linearity and the overall number of parameters. The experimental results on the super-resolution task demonstrate that the proposed architectures yield performance improvements in both PSNR and perceptual metrics.

February 2, 2021

Michael Gygli (Google Research)

Click here for slides.

Towards More Reusable and Adaptive Models for Visual Recognition

In this talk, I will go over our recent efforts to make neural networks more reusable and adaptive. First, I will present “Towards Reusable Network Components by Learning Compatible Representations”, published at AAAI 2021. This work studies how components of different networks can be made compatible so that they can be re-assembled into new networks easily. This unlocks improvements in several different applications. Secondly, I will discuss “Continuous Adaptation for Interactive Object Segmentation by Learning from Corrections”, published at ECCV 2020. There, we show the benefits of learning from interactions of a user with an interactive segmentation model: Such a model becomes self-adaptive, which enables it to successfully transfer to new distributions and domains. Due to this, our model achieves state-of-the-art results on several datasets. Finally, I will briefly discuss other important efforts in our team, such as the OpenImages dataset and Localized Narratives.